Proteus species are most commonly found as part of normal human intestinal flora, along with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. Proteus is also found in multiple environmental habitats, including long-term care facilities and hospitals. As a particularly active proteolytic germ, proteus can burden the body considerably through its metabolic toxins.
Klebsiella is a bacterium, which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Klebsiella overgrowth is commonly asymtomatic. Some strains of Klebsiella may cause diarrhea and some are enterotoxigenic. A low-starch diet may be helpful if high levels of Klebsiella are present.
Increased Enterobacter indicate disturbances of the intestinal flora, malnutrition or digestive insufficiencies. A larger amount of these bacteria does not belong in the normal intestinal flora. Their multiplication often results from past antibioses.
Citrobacter is a rod belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is considered an opportunistic pathogen and therefore can be found in the gut as part of the normal flora. Citrobacter are also commonly found in water, soil and food and may be spread by person-to person contact.
Pseudomonas can be found in water and soil as well as fruits ans vegetables. A common source of infection is bottled water, but increased Pseudonomas may also be due to an earlier antibiotic therapy.
Bifidobacteria make up a significant portion of the human gut flora. Along with Lactobacillia and Enterococci, Bifidobacteria control potentially pathogenic organisms and stimulate the intestinal immune system (GALT). Bifidobacteria metabolize carbohydrates only. By doing so, they produce short chain fatty acids, which adidify the intestine and couteract pathogenic organisms. Decreased Bifidobacteria indicate deficiencies in colonisation resistance, putrefaction in the intestine and can promote constipation.
Bacteroides is the most abundant bacteria in the microflora, which allows us to digest soluble fibre and make short chain fatty acids. Decreased bacteroides indicate a lowered resistence to pathogenic species (such as salmonella, shigella and clostridia).
Lactobacilli are lactic acid forming bacteria, which produce large amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFAs lower the intestinal pH and thereby make the gut milieu acidic — unsuitable for microbial pathogens (e.g. yeasts). In addition, lactobacilli secrete antifungal and antimicrobial agents. Decreased Lactobacilli indicate disturbances of the intestinal flora.
Clostridia are prevalent flora in a healthy intestine. As clostirida produce gases it may cause flatulence. Increased Clostridia indicates putrefaction in the intestine and may burden the body with metabolic toxins. Increased clostridia are often found in older people due to changes in their nutrition. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens are one cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
The genus Candida is comprised of approximately 200 different species. Candida albicans is the most common strain of them. It is a normal part of the gut flora and most people have some level of Candida albicans in their intestines. But a combination of factors can lead to an overgrowth, which then leads to several undesirable symptoms including fatigue, weight gain, joint pain, and gas.
Increased candida species indicates deficiancies in colonisation resitance, disturbances of the intestinal flora and or a defect mucosa. Candida species may burden the body with toxic metabolites. Some patients respont to even low rates of yeast overgrowth.
Geotrichum belongs to the Endomyceteaceae family. This organism can be found in soil, dairy products and in human skin and mucosae. Symptoms of Geotrichum infection have been associated with diarrhea and enteritis.
An infection with mold can have many reasons. Possible causes are things like corticosteroid therapy, stress, diabetes, malnutrition or birth control pills. All of them weaken the immune system and a weakened immune system cannot control mold or help you get rid of it. Antibiotics are also a common cause of mold infection because they destroy the good bacteria that keep it under control.
Secretory IgA (sIgA) is an immune protein, which reacts anti-inflammatory. It coats the intestinal lining, especially the mucosal surfaces and is supposed to protect us from inside. As secretory IgA represents the first line of defense of the GI, immunological activity in the GI tract can be assessed using secretory IgA. Low levels of fecal sIgA increase the risk of leaky gut syndrome and promote the growth of microbial pathogens in the intestine. The risk of inflammatroy immune reactions to undigested food and protein is also increased if low levels of sIgA are present. Low fecal IgA levels can result from physical or mental stress and/or inadequate nutrition. High fecal sIgA indicate immune reactions to antigens from bacteria, yeast or other microbes.
Zonulin is a protein molecule that helps with the regulation of tight junctions in your intestinal wall. When it connects to specific receptors on the cell surface, the tight junctions open up and therefore increase your intestinal permeability. This can be caused e.g. by being exposed to certain types of bacteria. The ensuing exposure to foreign antigens and cell components can cause immunological reactions and dysregulations. High Zonulin values can typically be observed in case of Diabetes Type 1, autoimmune diseases, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic diseases.